List of Top 10 Diseases: Worst Killers in History. Most dangerous diseases and death statistics. Plague, Smallpox, Influenza, Malaria, Measles, AIDS, Ebola, Tuberculosis, Cholera, Tetanus.
1. Black Death – Bubonic plague, pneumonic plague, septicemic plague.
Kills: 100 millions – 30% to 60% of Europeans in just a three years. Plague plague returned at various times until 19th century.
Killer: Yersinia pestis bacterium – spread by fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis) carried by rats.
The Black Death epidemy (1348-1350) was combination of bubonic plague, pneumonic plague, septicemic plague and hunger. Plague victims would die within 1 to seven days.
Bubonic plague – tumors (buboes) of range in size from that of an egg to that of an apple. Survival up to 7 days.
Pneumonic plague – attacking lungs – most virulent, spread by air. Survival 1-2 days.
Septicemic plague – most deadly – attacking blood system and causing gangrena and black/purple spots and gangrene.
Modern treatment: Antibiotics: streptomycin, tetracycline, gentamicin.
Kills: 400,000 deaths in Europe yearly during 18th century,Â Indian population drop from 12 million to 235,000. It also caused 1/3 of blindness.
Killer: Variola major (vera) and Variola minor with 35% and 1% mortality. 80% infected children mortality during 18th century epidemy.
Modern treatment: Vacciation, smallpox was erradicated. Rumors talking about biological weapons based on smallpox.
3. Influenza – Spanish Flu
Kills: 100 millions deaths (1918-19), 36,000 yearly victimes
Killers: RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae
Spanish Flu – epidemy has killed 100 millions victims during 3 years.
Hong Kong Flu – H3N2 virus – 1968 – 1969 – 1 million deaths
Bird Flu – H5N1 virus – 2006-2007
Swine Flu – H1N1 virus – 2009 – 14 000 deaths
Treatment: rest, liquids, Paracetamol, vaccination.
Kills:Â 2.7 million deaths every year, 300 millions malaria cases yearly.
Killer: Plasmodium carried by Anopheles mosquito.
Symptoms of malaria include fever, shivering, arthralgia (joint pain), vomiting, anemia (caused by hemolysis), hemoglobinuria, retinal damage, and convulsions.
Treatment: antimalarial drugs, mosquito erradication.
Kills: 200 millions deaths during last 150 years
The classical measles symptoms include four day fevers, the three Csâ€”cough, coryza (runny nose) and conjunctivitis (red eyes). The fever may reach up to 40 Â°C. Complications include ear infections, bronchitis, and encephalitis.
Treatment: no treatment currently available. Ibuprofen helping to decrease fever.
Kills: 39 millions of sick from 1981, 3 million deaths
Killer: HIV virus
HIV reduces the effectiveness of the immune system so victime is killed by any common disease or cancer, tuberculosis.
Treatment: Prevention is the best protection. HIV vaccine still not available. Current drugs have negative side effects.
Kills: 7 pandemics from 1816-1970, 23 millions deaths between 1865-1917.
Killer: Vibrio cholerae (bacterium)
Infected patients may die within three hours if medical treatment is not provided. In a common scenario, the disease progresses from the first liquid stool to shock in 4 to 12 hours, with death following in 18 hours to several days, unless oral (or, in more serious cases, intravenous) rehydration therapy is provided.
Treatment: rehydration, antibiotics.
Kills: 2 millions yearly.
Killer: Mycobacterium tuberculosis
When the disease becomes active, 75% of the cases are pulmonary TB, that is, TB in the lungs. Symptoms include chest pain, coughing up blood, and a productive, prolonged cough for more than three weeks. Systemic symptoms include fever, chills, night sweats, appetite loss, weight loss, pallor, and often a tendency to fatigue very easily.
Treatment: vaccination, antibiotics
9. Hemorrhagic fever (EHF) – Ebola
Kills: 150 000 deaths since 1975
Killer: Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus.
Ebola is characterized by the rapid onset of fever, malaise, muscle pain, headache, and the inflammation of the pharynx. Six days following vomiting and bloody diarrhea, individuals may develop maculopapular rash with bleeding at needle sites and bodily orifices.
Mortality rate: 50% to 90%.
Treatment: no curent cure. Improvement of coagulation factors, maintaining oxygen and blood levels, and treating any complicating infections helping to increase survival rate.
Kills: 100 000-200 000 yearly mostly in Africa and Asia.
Killer: Clostridium tetani, a bacterium.
The tetanus bacteria usually enter the body through a wound, or cut, in the skin. Bacteria produce the toxin (poison) tetanospasmin, which is responsible for causing tetanus. A tetanus infection must be treated quickly because, left untreated, the condition can be fatal. Mortality rate: 40% to 78%. Poison causing spasms and terrible pain.
Treatment: Vaccination, antibiotics decreases the number of bacteria but has no effect on the bacterial toxin.
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